***New: for a surprising rendition of Bach à la chinoise, see #12 below***
While I’ve rather moved on from mere audio to film (like WAM, these are never “autonomous” pieces for detached aesthetic appreciation), the audio playlist in the sidebar has some wonderful tracks, as follows:
1 Shanxi, Yanggao county, Li family Daoist band: Invitation ritual.
The village ritual version makes a moving scene in my film (from 58.14): for the sequence, including the choral Song in Praise of the Dipper and solo Invitation verses, see this post.
This track is from the Beijing concert, 2013; though the sequence was further abbreviated from the ritual version, note how they perform at a more controlled majestic tempo than in the more casual conditions of recent village practice.
2 Li family Daoist band: Mantra to the Three Generations
This is the a cappella version, as sung at the gate on the return from the Invitation (my film, from 1.06.17). We recorded it informally in 2001 in the courtyard of Li Qing’s old home, with the regular members joined by the distinguished elderly Kang Ren (1925–2010, far left).
The shengguan version, optional for Delivering the Scriptures and Transferring Offerings (my film, from 1.08.01), is much slower and more decorated. But even for this a cappella rendition they sang the hymn more slowly than they now tend to at the gate. For further discussion, with a score of both versions, see my book, pp.268–72.
3 Li family Daoist band: shengguan suite Da Zouma, opening sections.
Today’s younger Daoists learned all the six shengguan suites with Li Qing, and love them, but since they are prescribed mainly for temple and earth scriptures they now hardly need to play them. I mildly suggest that since they know how hard it was for Li Qing to transmit them all under Maoism, it would be a shame to let them “turn black” in their hands. Li Manshan agrees they should make an effort to play through them occasionally anyway.
Indeed, for funerals, during the nocturnal Crossing the Soul (guoling, or Sitting Through the Night (zuoye) deep into the night, they mainly play their more popular repertoire, but if the host is discriminating then they may play one or more of the long classic suites too.
The suites open with a series of two or three related slow melodies, gradually accelerating into an equally long series of fast simpler melodies revolving around a couple of pitches.
This recording is from the Beijing concert, 2012. Note the imperceptible yet ineluctable accelerando; and the distinctive sharp fa, used as part of a descending conjunct pattern from la down to mi.
4 Shanxi, Yanggao county, Hua family shawm band: Shuilongyin in meihuadiao scale
Shawm bands in Yanggao used to play this piece in two different mode-keys: the basic scale (bendiao), used as the morning overture (Walking shrill, track 2), and the plaintive meihuadiao version, prescribed for the afternoon, as a prelude to remind people that they are “civilized” before launching into the jocular “small pieces”.
As in Shaanbei, meihuadiao is theoretically one tone lower than bendiao, with its tonic on D, the top finger hole and thumb covered (the lower octave would be the note below the lowest note on the shawm). But the feel of the shawm is such that the lowest note E and the A a 4th above it still exercise a strong pull, and the D may sound like a blues 7th. Further, Hua Yinshan often uses the high G#as a passing note down to F# and then back up to A, suggesting a scale with a sharp 4th. The only other meihuadiao piece they can now play is Da Yanluo (Walking shrill track 8).
See also track 10 below, and further analysis here.
This piece illustrates the typical metrical sequence, opening with the recurring 8/4 pattern on the drum punctuated by one gong stroke and four cymbal clashes every measure; through a long and carefully graded accelerando the drum adds more free syncopated patterns. But the piece has few obvious signposts. Just before the frantic final section a short 9-measure phrase is repeated four times, so fast and wild that it may elude you. Otherwise it’s a magnificently through-composed piece, exploring the relationships between pitches, little motifs flashing past and then leading in different directions. I never cease to be impressed at their memory.
Walking shrill, track 3—from our first sessions in 1991, outside in Hua Yinshan’s courtyard.
5 Liaoyang shawm band: Batiaolong
The large shawms of the northeast are renowned. I recorded Batiaolong (“Eight dragons”) in August 1992, with Liu Yongqing leading his band. It is a slow ornate decorated version of a simple outline melody [(a) in the example below], in the plaintive key of beidiao, with the rasping pogong technique imparting a visceral anguish. Unusually, the two shawms play in virtual unison, unlike the heterophony at the octave of most other bands in north China.
From the CD with my Folk music of China, track 4; this score of the opening is from p.170 there.
6 Hebei, Laishui county, South Gaoluo, vocal liturgy: Langtao sha, from Houtu precious scroll
“Precious scrolls” (baojuan), widely treated by sinologists as a historical textual subject, are still commonly performed on the Hebei plain (see also my In search of the folk Daoists, Appendix 3).
This is part of the Houtu scroll: two verses sung to the melody Langtao sha, one of many melodies which punctuate the chapters of the story (see Plucking the winds, p.382).
As Our Lady calls, young lord obeys
And generous hearts are set forth
You are the master of all under heaven
You lost your way at Nanyang
In later days to become a sage.
Young Lord Liu
Grateful to the efficacious spirit
Rescuing my body safe
In my current difficulties I shall repay your generosity
As time goes by when I ascend the dragon throne
I shall personally ennoble you with my imperial mouth.
The text describes the rescue of Liu Xiu, usurped heir to the Han throne, by the goddess Houtu, and his vow to grant her imperial divinity upon his restoration to the throne. The structure is 3-3-4-7-6-4 words, with the final 4-word line repeated.
Plucking the winds, CD track 24, recorded informally in August 1993.
7 Hebei, Baxian county, Gaoqiao village ritual association, from shengguan suite Jintang yue
From the shengguan melody Jintang yue, played by the fine Buddhist-transmitted ritual association of Gaoqiao village in Baxian county just southeast of Gaoluo.
This section, leading from the end of the long free-tempo introduction into the main a tempo melody, illustrates the high standard achieved by exceptional groups preserving the style acquired from Buddhist or Daoist priests. The ensemble is small: on this occasion the melodic section consisted of one guanzi (the magnificent Shang Lishan, then a mere 31), one dizi, two sheng, and two frames of yunluo played by one musician. The association also ran a sheng factory, providing and mending sheng for many villages.
Plucking the winds, CD track 14, recorded informally in Gaoqiao, September 1993.
8 Gaoluo: singing the solfeggio of Ma yulang
The shengguan music of temples and ritual associations around Beijing, Hebei, and elsewhere in north China is learned mainly by internalizing the melodic skeleton, represented in gongche solfeggio. This outline is decorated elaborately, first in group singing, and then in different ways suitable to each instrument (track 9).
While the playing of the Gaoluo association wasn’t exceptional, in their singing of the score one can hear their deep commitment. This is section 3 of the suite Ma yulang, sung at an evening rehearsal before the New Year’s rituals in 1995.
Track 17 from the CD with Plucking the winds.
9 Gaoluo, from shengguan suite Ma yulang
This is the shengguan ensemble version of the same piece. The introduction (not part of their sung version) is actually a free-tempo version of the final repeated section of the melody. The gongche melody begins at 1’21”.
Recorded in the ritual building at New Year 1998. One reason I am fond of this track is because I am playing in it, on one of the two frames of yunluo. But not so you’d notice, I hope—like playing in a chamber orchestra.
Track 18 from the CD with Plucking the winds.
10: Shanxi, Yanggao county, Hua family shawm band: Da Yanluo suite in fanzidiao scale
For this suite, recorded in Hua Yinshan’s courtyard in 2001 (Walking shrill, track 7), see my analysis here, including a link to a 1992 funerary version.
11 Xi’an ritual suite (opening), 1961.
For background on the so-called Xi’an guyue ensemble, see this page, and my Folk Music of China, pp. 227–45, including basic analysis of this sequence.
In 1961 the former Daoist priest An Laixu brought a group to Beijing to perform. On this track he plays the double frame of yunluo gongs; other revered musicians include Yang Jiazhen (dizi flute) and Meng Qingzhen (drums). The recording was made by Li Wanpeng of the Music Research Institute.
This is the opening of the celebrated “Sitting music” suite in the scale of chediao. Percussion sections frame a free-tempo melodic prelude, followed by a section in which an eight measure (bapai) piece from the guduan genre alternates with more stately pieces from the faqu genre.
Track 6, China: folk instrumental traditions (2-CD set, AIMP/VDE Gallo, 1995);
also track 6 on the CD with the 1998 paperback edition of my Folk Music of China.
12 Bach à la chinoise
We recorded this medley from the Goldberg variations on erhu fiddle and sanxian banjo as a tribute for the great Stephan Feuchtwang‘s 80th birthday. My role in it is less inconspicuous than in track 9, but hey.
With thanks as ever to Michele Banal for his technical wizardry.